Failure to have children is usually a source of great emotional tower oil. Men and women often take it for granted that they are capable of doing this. Many couples who have problems conceiving will seek medical help at some point. Different treatments are available depending on the possible causes of infertility.

Problems conceiving a child are considered “infertility” if a couple has had regular sex without contraception for a year and the woman has not become pregnant.


Some women experience a few days of light flow, while others regularly have heavy periods and painful cramps.

Women who have a very heavy and painful period may show signs of endometriosis, a condition where tissue typically found in the uterus is present elsewhere in the body.

Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility.

Other symptoms of endometriosis include:

chronic pelvic pain (not just during menstruation)
pain during sex
Back ache
irregular periods and spotting
bowel problems or painful stools
Dark or pale menstrual blood
If your period blood is regularly paler than usual, this may be a concern. Menstrual blood is usually bright red at the start of a period and may turn darker the following days.

Passing very dark, old blood early in a period can also be a sign of endometriosis. If a person has other symptoms, they may want to see a doctor.

Irregular menstrual cycle
The length of a menstrual cycle varies among individuals and over time. However, many people cycle regularly, which means that the time between each period is roughly the same.

Having an irregular cycle, including missing periods, can contribute to infertility because it means a woman may not ovulate regularly. Ovulation occurs when the ovary releases an egg.

Irregular ovulation can be due to many problems, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, underweight, and thyroid problems.

Hormonal changes
Signs of hormonal changes may be nonspecific, and a person may not notice them or know the underlying cause. A doctor can test for certain hormonal problems.

Fluctuations in hormone levels can cause:

unexplained weight gain
severe acne
cold hands and feet
reduced libido or loss of sexual desire
nipple discharge
facial hair in women
thinning hair on top of the head


Each of these factors are important in getting pregnant:

You need to ovulate. In order to get pregnant, your ovaries need to produce and release an egg, a process known as ovulation. Your doctor can help evaluate your menstrual cycles and confirm ovulation.
Your partner needs sperm. For most couples, this is not a problem unless your partner has a history of illness or surgery. Your doctor can do some simple tests to assess the health of your partner’s sperm.
You need to have regular intercourse. You must have regular intercourse during your fertile period. Your doctor can help you better understand when you are most fertile.
You need open fallopian tubes and a normal uterus. The egg and sperm meet in the fallopian tubes, and the embryo needs a healthy uterus to grow in.
For pregnancy to occur, every step of the human reproductive process must be correct. The steps in this process are:

One of the two ovaries releases a mature egg.
The egg is taken up by the fallopian tube.
Sperm swim up the cervix, through the uterus and into the fallopian tubes to reach the egg for fertilization.
The fertilized egg travels to the uterus via the fallopian tube.
The fertilized egg implants and grows in the uterus.
In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any step. Female infertility is caused by one or more of the following factors.


There are 2 types of infertility:
Primary infertility refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year of having sex without using birth control methods.
Secondary infertility refers to couples who may have gotten pregnant at least once, but are now unable to.


Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the infertility.

Erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation: medications, behavioral approaches, or both can help improve fertility.
Varicocele: Surgical removal of a varicose vein in the scrotum can help.
Blockage of the ejaculatory duct: Sperm can be extracted directly from the testes and injected into an egg in the laboratory.
Retrograde ejaculation: semen can be taken directly from the bladder and injected into an egg in the laboratory.
Epididymal Block Surgery: A blocked epididymis can be repaired surgically. The epididymis is a coil-like structure in the testes that helps store and transport sperm. If the epididymis is blocked, the sperm may not ejaculate properly.
Fertility treatments for women
Fertility drugs can be prescribed to regulate or induce ovulation.

They include:

Clomiphene (Clomid, Serophen): This promotes ovulation in people who ovulate irregularly or not at all due to PCOS or some other disorder. This causes the pituitary to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Metformin (Glucophage): When clomiphene isn’t working, metformin may help women with PCOS, especially if it’s linked to insulin resistance.
Menopausal Human Gonadotropin or hMG (Repronex): This contains both FSH and LH. Patients who are unable to ovulate due to a fault in the pituitary gland can receive this medication as an injection.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (Gonal-F, Bravelle): This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, which controls the production of estrogen in the ovaries. It stimulates the ovaries to mature egg follicles.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl): In combination with clomiphene, hMG and FSH this can stimulate the follicle to ovulate.
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (Gn-RH) Analogs: These can help women who ovulate too early during hmG treatment – before the lead follicle is mature. It provides a constant supply of Gn-RH to the pituitary gland, which ages hormone production and allows the doctor to use FSH to induce follicle growth.
Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This drug inhibits the production of prolactin. Prolactin stimulates milk production during breastfeeding. Outside of pregnancy and breastfeeding, women with high levels of prolactin can experience irregular ovulatory cycles and fertility problems.


If you have not been able to conceive within a reasonable time, seek the help of your doctor for an assessment and treatment of infertility.

Fertility tests can include:

Ovulation test. An over-the-counter ovulation home predictor kit detects the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) that occurs before ovulation. A blood test for progesterone – a hormone produced after ovulation – can also document that you are ovulating. Other hormone levels, such as prolactin, can also be controlled.
Hysterosalpingography. During hysterosalpingography (his-tur-o-sal-ping-GOG-ruh-fee), an X-ray contrast medium is injected into your uterus and an x-ray is taken to check for abnormalities in the uterine cavity. The test also determines if fluid is coming out of the uterus and leaking out of your fallopian tubes. If any anomalies are found, you will likely need further evaluation. In a few women, the test itself can improve fertility, possibly by flushing and opening the fallopian tubes.
Ovarian reserve test. This test helps determine the quality and quantity of eggs available for ovulation. Women at risk of a depleted egg supply – including women over 35 – may have this round of blood and imaging tests.
Other hormonal tests. Other hormonal tests check the levels of ovulatory hormones as well as the thyroid and pituitary hormones that control reproductive processes.
Imaging tests. A pelvic ultrasound looks for uterine or fallopian tube disease. Sometimes a sonohysterogram, also called a saline infusion ultrasound, is used to see details inside the uterus that cannot be seen on a regular ultrasound.
Depending on your situation, your tests may rarely include:

Other imaging tests. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may order a hysteroscopy to check for uterine or fallopian tube disease.
Laparoscopy. This minimally invasive surgery involves making a small incision below your belly button and inserting a thin viewing device to examine your fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus. A laparoscopy can identify endometriosis, scarring, blockages or irregularities in the fallopian tubes, and problems with the ovaries and uterus.
Genetic test. Genetic testing helps determine if there is a genetic defect causing infertility.

Risk factor

There are some risks associated with using fertility medication, such as:

Pregnancy in multiples. Oral drugs have a relatively low multiple risk (less than 10 percent) and mostly a twin risk. Your chances increase by up to 30 percent with injectable drugs. Injectable fertility drugs also carry the main risk of triplets or more (higher-order multiple pregnancy).

In general, the more fetuses you carry, the greater the risk of premature labor, low birth weight, and later developmental problems. Sometimes medication adjustments can lower the risk by multiples if too many follicles develop.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Injecting fertility drugs to induce ovulation can cause OHSS, which causes swollen and painful ovaries. Signs and symptoms usually go away without treatment and include mild abdominal pain, gas, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

However, if you do become pregnant, your symptoms can last for several weeks. In rare cases, it is possible to develop a more severe form of OHSS, which can also lead to rapid weight gain, enlarged, painful ovaries, abdominal fluid, and shortness of breath.

Long-term risks of ovarian tumors. Most studies in women taking fertility drugs suggest that there are few or no long-term risks. However, some studies suggest that women who take fertility medication for 12 months or more without a successful pregnancy may have an increased risk of borderline ovarian cancer later in life.

Women who are never pregnant are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, so this may be related to the underlying problem rather than treatment. Because success rates tend to be higher in the first few courses of treatment, it seems appropriate to reassess medication usage every few months and focus on the treatments that are most successful.

Health condition

Maintain a normal weight. Overweight and underweight women are at increased risk of ovulation disorders. If you need to lose weight, exercise moderately. Strenuous and strenuous exercise for more than five hours per week has been associated with decreased ovulation.
Stop smoking. Tobacco has multiple negative effects on fertility, not to mention your general health and the health of the fetus. If you smoke and plan to become pregnant, quit now.
Avoid alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to decreased fertility. And any alcohol consumption can affect the health of a developing fetus. If you are planning to become pregnant, avoid alcohol and do not drink alcohol during pregnancy.
Reduce stress. Some studies have shown that couples suffering from psychological stress have poorer results with infertility treatment. If you can, find a way to reduce the stress in your life before you try to get pregnant.
Limit your caffeine intake. Research suggests that limiting caffeine intake to less than 200 milligrams per day shouldn’t affect your ability to get pregnant. That’s about one to two 6 to 8 ounce cups of coffee per day.

When to see doctor

Some of the possible questions your doctor or other healthcare provider might ask are:

How long have you been trying to get pregnant?
How often do you have sexual intercourse?
Have you ever been pregnant If so, what was the outcome of that pregnancy?
Have you had pelvic or abdominal surgery?
Have you received treatment for gynecological diseases?
At what age did you first have periods?
What is the average number of days between the start of one menstrual cycle and the start of your next menstrual cycle?
Do you experience premenstrual symptoms such as breast tenderness, gas or cramps

How much cost

The average cost of an IVF cycle can be anywhere between Rs 2.5 lakhs and Rs 4 lakhs. There may be additional drugs and tests needed – or procedures like frozen embryo transfer – that can further increase the cost.

These costs might seem a little daunting, but a personal loan from HDFC Bank can help make your dreams of parenting come true! Some pre-approved HDFC Bank customers can get the loan in 10 seconds, while non-HDFC Bank customers can get a loan in 4 hours. Even more, you can also take advantage of flexible EMIs starting at Rs. 2,149 per lake, for easy and stress-free repayment.


IVF involves several steps – ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, sperm retrieval, fertilization, and embryo transfer. An IVF cycle can last around two to three weeks, and more than one cycle may be required