overview

A tendon is tissue that attaches muscle to the bone. It is flexible, tough and fibrous and it can withstand tension. A ligament extends from bone to bone at a joint, while a tendon extends from muscle to bone.

Tendons and muscles work together and exert a pulling force. Tendons and ligaments are tough and fibrous, but they are known as soft tissue, because they are soft compared with bone.

If the sheath around the tendon becomes inflamed, rather than the tendon itself, the condition is called tenosynovitis. Tendinitis and tenosynovitis can occur together.

Types

Different types of tendinitis affect different parts of the body.

Achilles tendinitis
The Achilles tendon is between the heel and therefore the calf muscle. Achilles tendinitis may be a common sports injury. it’s going to even be caused by shoes that fit badly or don’t properly support the foot. it’s more likely among patients with atrophic arthritis .

Supraspinatus tendinitis
With supraspinatus tendinitis, the tendon round the top of the shoulder becomes inflamed, causing pain when the arm is moved, especially upwards.

Some patients may find it painful to lie on the affected shoulder in the dark . If other tendons within the same area also are affected, the patient may have structure syndrome.

Tennis or golfer’s elbow
A common symptom of tennis elbow , commonly referred to as lateral epicondylitis , is pain on the outer side of the elbow. it’s going to radiate down towards the wrist.

Medial epidondylitis or golfer’s elbow is pain on the inner side of the elbow, and it’s more common among golfers. Pain is more acute when trying to lift against a force. The pain sometimes radiates right down to the wrist.

De Quervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis
The sheath that surrounds the thumb tendons, between the thumb and wrist, becomes inflamed. With the thickened sheath and swelling within the area, it becomes painful to maneuver the thumb.

Trigger finger or thumb
The finger or thumb clicks when straightened out. It becomes fixed during a bent position because the tendon sheath within the palm of the hand is thickened and inflamed and doesn’t allow the tendon to maneuver smoothly. Sometimes a nodule forms along the tendon.

Tendinitis of the wrist
This can affect badminton players and assembly line workers, who repeatedly use an equivalent motion with their wrist. Tendinopathy is another sort of injury that affects the wrist tendons. this is often a degenerative condition instead of an inflammation.

Symptoms

Symptoms occur where the tendon attaches to a bone.

They usually include:

pain which worsens on movement
a feeling that the tendon is crackling or grating because it moves
swelling, heat, and redness
a lump may develop along the tendon
If there’s a rupture, a niche could also be felt within the line of the tendon, and movement are going to be difficult.

Symptoms may last from a couple of days to many weeks or months.

Other risk factors include

Age: Tendons subsided flexible with age and more vulnerable to injury.

Profession: an individual whose job involves repetitive movements, awkward positions, frequently reaching overhead, vibration, and forceful exertion features a higher risk. Painting a ceiling may trigger it.

Sports: Sports that involve repetitive movements can cause tendinitis, for instance , running, tennis, swimming, basketball, golf, bowling, and baseball.

Some health conditions: People with diabetes and atrophic arthritis are more likely to develop tendinitis.

If the pain suddenly gets worse, or if it suddenly becomes impossible to maneuver a joint, the person should seek medical attention.

Diagnosis

A physician will ask about symptoms and perform a physical examination. When the doctor attempts to maneuver the tendon, a creaky sound could also be heard. This happens because the tendon sheath has become thicker and inflamed.

If there’s tenderness at one specific point within the tendon, this will indicate tendinitis.

If the matter doesn’t get away with rest, ice, and over-the-counter (OTC) medications, the doctor may recommend some tests.

An x-ray can show up calcium deposits round the tendon, which can help confirm a diagnosis.

Other imaging tests, like ultrasound or MRI, may reveal swelling of the tendon sheath.

Treatment

Treatment aims to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

In many cases, the subsequent are going to be enough:

resting the joint
hot and cold treatment
pain relievers like ibuprofen, available over-the-counter (OTC) or online.
splinting of the affected joint

Rest:

Rest will allow the inflammation to travel down. If a sporting activity or typing, for instance , causes tendinitis, the person must rest from this activity, or reduce the intensity with which they practice it.

A bandage, splint or brace may help reduce movement. In severe cases, resting in plaster could also be required.

Not resting can cause complications.

Heat and cold:

An ice pack or warm towel may alleviate pain and swelling in the affected area.

Ice are often applied for 10 to fifteen minutes, once or twice each day .

It is important to not apply ice directly onto the skin. Wrap it during a towel, or use a specially designed ice-pack device.

Relief can also come from taking a warm bath, applying hot towels, or applying a topical medication, like a cream or ointment, that heats the world .

Ice is generally best for injuries that have occurred within the last 48 hours. After this, heat could also be a far better option.

Pain relievers

OTC drugs: Ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found to help pain with tendon pain.

Corticosteroid injections: Around the tendon may help alleviate symptoms. However, repeated injections may weaken the tendon, significantly increasing the risk of a rupture.

Physical therapy: Manipulating and massaging the affected area may provide relief and accelerate the healing process.

Stretching and exercise: The physical therapist may also recommend specific exercises, designed to stretch and strengthen the affected tendon and muscle.

Shock wave therapy or surgery:

If tendinitis persists, and there are calcium deposits round the tendon, extracorporeal blast wave therapy (ESWT) may help. A blast wave is skilled the skin, ending the calcium deposits. The deposits can also be removed surgically.

Without proper treatment, tendinitis can more easily end in a tendon rupture. this is often a more serious condition which will need surgery.